Underwater Lighting is a type of Lighting specially designed for use underwater. This lighting must meet the degree of protection IPX8 which means that the underwater light is dust and water resistant according to IEC 60529. Underwater lighting operates on low voltage, 30Vdc max according to standard IEC60364-7-702[.
Light rays bend when they travel from one medium to another; the amount of bending is determined by the refractive indices of the two media. If one medium has a particular curved shape, it functions as a lens. The cornea, humours, and crystalline lens of the eye together form a lens that focuses images on the retina. Our eyes are adapted for viewing in air. Water, however, has approximately the same refractive index as the cornea (both about 1.33), effectively eliminating the cornea's focusing properties. When our eyes are in water, instead of focusing images on the retina, they now focus them far behind the retina, resulting in an extremely blurred image from hypermetropia.
Water has a significantly different refractive index to air, and this affects the focusing of the eye. Most animals' eyes are adapted to either underwater or air vision, and do not focus properly when in the other environment.
A dive light is a light source carried by an underwater diver to illuminate the underwater environment. Scuba divers generally carry self contained lights, but surface supplied divers may carry lights powered by cable supply from the surface.
A dive light is routinely used during night dives and cave dives, when there is little or no natural light, but also has a useful function during the day, as water absorbs the longer (red) wavelengths first then the yellow and green with increasing depth. By using artificial light, it is possible to view an object in full color at greater depths.
Types of underwater lighting:
Halogen vs. LED:-
As with other types of lighting, for underwater illumination different light sources are used. Traditionally, underwater lights are equipped with halogen lamps. For several years, led underwater lighting is emerging in the market. The advantage of led is that this light source (under the condition of correct application) has a much longer lifespan than halogen. By comparison, a halogen underwater light has up to 1,500 burning hours, while a LED underwater lamp can reach 50,000 burning hours
The switch from halogen to LED has a significant effect on the energy consumption of underwater luminaires. There are now LED underwater lights on the market with a power consumption of 45W with significantly higher light output than a 300W halogen underwater light.
led underwater light:
High-power Led underwater light.
Many manufacturers have, in switching to LED, built upon the existing design of the halogen underwater light fixture which must be opened in order to replace the light source. For halogen lighting this is approximately 2 times per year (depending on intensity of use). As the lifetime of LEDs in theory is 20 to 50 times longer than halogen, some manufacturers have responded to this with a new design in which the light source is sealed-off water and airtight with special resin. This new generation of LED underwater lights have fewer problems with waterproofing.
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